||Facts show that Africa is the continent where group exclusions, ethnic clashes, genocides… are more rampant. From immemorial times, ethnocentrism had been inherent to every form of life in group, but major questions (nationalities, identities…) that constitute sources of constructive discussions in other parts of the world, generally lead rather to blood shed in Africa. It seems that African governments tend to institutionalise or legitimise exclusion through constitutions based on concepts such as "ivoirité”, “allogènes” or “new comers” oppose to autochthonous. Some African groups behave as they were the sole owners and the rulers of the areas where they are established. The others are therefore excluded from political arenas, from the utilisation of resources and their management. They are not free to express their religious affiliations or their cultural identities. In African countries, it seems that all groups of peoples sharing the same geographical environment and being link by the same history, were not the citizens of the same fatherland.
From this, one can ask to know if in Africa, all ethnic groups enjoy equal rights in social activities. Are citizens of all ethnic groups able to enjoy freedom of speech, of the press, of assembly, of association, of procession and of demonstration? Do citizens of all ethnic groups have the right to receive education, to conduct scientific research, to participate to cultural activities, to criticise and put forward suggestions to government offices and government functionaries. Are citizens of all ethnic groups free to preserve or develop their own folkways and customs? Finally, What is the meaning of citizenship for Africans?